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Lithium ion battery electrolyte research progress of flame retardant additive-phosphoric acid ethyl ester

Due to the higher energy density of lithium-ion battery, high voltage, long life and other advantages stand out in a variety of secondary batteries, electric vehicles, Smart grids, and so has a wide range of applications. At present, the security is restricting the application of commercialization of large-capacity lithium-ion battery problem, of the highly flammable lithium-ion batteries the electrolyte is the battery important cause of security problems.

Most electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries containing lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF6) organic lithium salts such as carbonate ester. This high, low flash point solvent such as volatile, very easy to burn. When the batteries short-circuit, overcharge and other abnormal situation occurs, internal temperature, prone to battery electrode materials and electrolyte for electrolytic reaction between the liquid and its decomposition of an exothermic reaction. When these chemical reactions release heat not be evacuated in time, reaction will intensify, and set off a chain of chemical reactions, battery temperature rise sharply, or "thermal runaway", and eventually led to the burning, which exploded.